Science Alters its view on Calcium

Taken from
Universe contains more calcium than expected / Space Science ...‎

6 February 2007
The universe contains one and a half times more calcium than previously assumed. This
conclusion was drawn by astronomers of the SRON Netherlands Institute for Space
Research, after observations with ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory.

This research offers scientists new insights in the formation history of the elemental
building blocks of the cosmos in which supernovae play a crucial role.

The iron in our blood, the oxygen we breathe, the calcium in our bones, the silicon in the
sand box, all the atoms we are made of are released during the violent final moments of
massive stars in the act of dying. These so-called supernova explosions eject newly
made chemical elements into space where they become the building blocks for new
stars, planets, or even life. However, many questions concerning the very formation of
elements and the way they get distributed across the universe still remain open.

Galaxy cluster Abell 1689

According to Jelle de Plaa, space researcher at SRON, many answers can be found in
distant clusters of galaxies. "Clusters are in many ways the big cities of the universe", he

"They consist of hundreds of galaxies, each containing thousands of millions of stars.
The galaxies are embedded in a gigantic cloud of hot gas that fills this cluster like a
smog. Due to their enormous size and numbers, clusters contain a large fraction of the
total amount of matter in the universe. During the past thousand-millions of years
supernova explosions have enriched the surrounding hot gas with heavier elements, like
oxygen, silicon and iron."

Using XMM-Newton, De Plaa determined the abundances of oxygen, neon, silicon,
sulphur, argon, calcium, iron and nickel in 22 clusters of galaxies. In total he saw the
'pollution' produced by about 100 thousand million supernovae. When he compared the
measured amounts of elements in the clusters with theoretical models of supernovae,
the calcium abundance measured thanks to XMM-Newton appeared to be one and a half
times higher than theoreticians previously assumed.

Now from the UB

From the UB (1955)
41:6.0   6. Calcium — The Wanderer of Space

41:6.1   In deciphering spectral phenomena, it should be remembered that space is not
empty; that light, in traversing space, is sometimes slightly modified by the various forms
of energy and matter which circulate in all organized space. Some of the lines indicating
unknown matter which appear in the spectra of your sun are due to modifications of well-
known elements which are floating throughout space in shattered form, the atomic
casualties of the fierce encounters of the solar elemental battles. Space is pervaded by
these wandering derelicts, especially sodium and calcium.

41:6.2   Calcium is, in fact, the chief element of the matter-permeation of space
throughout Orvonton. Our whole superuniverse is sprinkled with minutely pulverized
stone. Stone is literally the basic building matter for the planets and spheres of space.
The cosmic cloud, the great space blanket, consists for the most part of the modified
atoms of calcium. The stone atom is one of the most prevalent and persistent of the
elements. It not only endures solar ionization — splitting — but persists in an associative
identity even after it has been battered by the destructive X rays and shattered by the
high solar temperatures. Calcium possesses an individuality and a longevity excelling all
of the more common forms of matter.